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Project ongoing since 2018

FREE

Causes and consequences of functional rarity from local to global scales 

FREE

Rarity has always fascinated conservation and evolutionary biologists with the goal to uncover species characteristics causing extinction risk. Recently, some results suggest that rare species may over-contribute to the diversity of traits within communities thus supporting irreplaceable roles while others show that rare species are functionally redundant with common species. Beyond the rarity of species, the rarity of functions played by species, coined as functional rarity, is thus key to understand the impact of biodiversity decline on ecosystem functioning. However, functional rarity still lacks a clear definition and a quantitative framework while its emergence and maintenance within communities is largely unknown. 

 

The aim of the FREE working group is to advance the concept of functional rarity and examine the causes and consequences of functional rarity from local to global scales. FREE‘s first results show that:

  • common assumptions notwithstanding, rare species can play unique and essential ecological roles,
  • rare species are already more threatened by humans than ecologically common species and will be more impacted by future climate change,
  • hotspots of functional rarity differ from the areas where the most vulnerable species are found. This has major implications for species and ecosystem conservation where functional rarity appears to be an additional criterion to be considered urgently for the establishment of lists of so-called species at risk and for deciding on the location and size of areas to be protected.

 

free cesab

Number of ecologically rare (b) and common (c) mammals (Loiseau et al., 2020)

 

CESAB Free

© CESAB Free 2019

researchers

PIs:

 

Cyrille VIOLLE – CEFE-CNRS (France); Caroline TUCKER – University of Colorado (USA).

Postdoc:

 

Nicolas LOISEAU – CEFE-CNRS (France)

ouvrir/fermer Participants:

Adam ALGAR – University of Nottingham (UK); Arnaud AUBER – IFREMER Boulogne-sur-mer (France); Marc CADOTTE – University of Toronto, (Canada); Pierre DENELLE -CNRS (France); Brian ENQUIST – University of Arizona (USA); Noah FIERER – University of Colorado (USA); Matthias GRENIE – CNRS (France); Gaurav KANDLIKAR – University of California (USA); Christopher KLAUSMEIER – Michigan State University (USA); Nathan KRAFT, University of Maryland (USA); Sébastien LAVERGNE -Université de Grenoble (France); Helena LITCHMAN – Michigan State University (USA); Anthony MAIRE – EDF (France); Brian MAITNER – University of Arizona (USA); Camille MARTINEZ –  Grenoble University (France); Brian MCGILL – University of Maine (USA); Matthew MCLEAN – Ifremer (France); David MOUILLOT – University of Montpellier (France); Nicolas MOUQUET – CNRS Montpellier (France); François MUNOZ – Grenoble University (France); Juliette MURGIER – Ifremer (France); Annette OSTLING -University of Michigan (USA); Wilfried THUILLER – CNRS Grenoble (France); Sébastien VILLEGIER – CNRS (France); Lucie ZINGER – University of Paul Sabatier (France).

FREE brings together specialists in community ecology, macro-ecology, biogeography, functional ecology, microbial ecology and phylogeny. 

Project

FREE was selected from the 2015 call for proposals. The project selection process was carried out by a committee of independent experts

publications

[20] Gross N, Le Bagousse-Pinguet Y, Liancourt P, Saiz H, Violle C & Munoz F (2021) Unveiling ecological assembly rules from commonalities in trait distributions. Ecology Letters, 24, 1668–1680. doi: 10.1111/ele.13789.

 

[19] Mouillot D, Loiseau N, Grenié M, Algar AC, Allegra M, Cadotte MW, Casajus N, Denelle P, Guéguen M, Maire A, Maitner B, McGill BJ, McLean M, Mouquet N, Munoz F, Thuiller W, Villéger S, Violle C & Auber A (2021) The dimensionality and structure of species trait spaces. Ecology Letters, 24, 1988–2009. doi: 10.1111/ele.13778.

 

[18] Murgier J, McLean M, Maire A, Mouillot D, Loiseau N, Munoz F, Violle C & Auber A (2021) Rebound in functional distinctiveness following warming and reduced fishing in the North Sea. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 288, 20201600. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2020.1600.

 

[17] Sala E, Mayorga J, Bradley D, Cabral RB, Atwood TB, Auber A, Cheung W, Costello C, Ferretti F, Friedlander AM, Gaines SD, Garilao C, Goodell W, Halpern BS, Hinson A, Kaschner K, Kesner-Reyes K, Leprieur F, McGowan J, Morgan LE, Mouillot D, Palacios-Abrantes J, Possingham HP, Rechberger KD, Worm B & Lubchenco J (2021) Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate. Nature, 592, 397–402. doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03371-z.

 

[16] Denelle P, Violle C & Munoz F (2020) Generalist plants are more competitive and more functionally similar to each other than specialist plants: insights from network analyses. Journal of Biogeography, 47, 1922–1933. doi: 10.1111/jbi.13848.

 

[15] Grenié M, Violle C & Munoz F (2020) Is prediction of species richness from stacked species distribution models biased by habitat saturation? Ecological Indicators, 111, 105970. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105970.

 

[14] Laroche F, Violle C, Taudière A & Munoz F (2020) Analyzing snapshot diversity patterns with the Neutral Theory can show functional groups' effects on community assembly. Ecology, 101, e02977. doi: 10.1002/ecy.2977.

 

[13] Loiseau N, Mouquet N, Casajus N, Grenié M, Guéguen M, Maitner B, Mouillot D, Ostling A, Renaud J, Tucker C, Velez L, Thuiller W & Violle C (2020) Global distribution and conservation status of ecologically rare mammal and bird species. Nature Communications, 11, 5071. doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-18779-w.

 

[12] Mahaut L, Cheptou P-O, Fried G, Munoz F, Storkey J, Vasseur F, Violle C & Bretagnolle V (2020) Weeds: Against the rules? Trends in Plant Science, 25, 1107–1116. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2020.05.013.

 

[11] Mahaut L, Fort F, Violle C & Freschet GT (2020) Multiple facets of diversity effects on plant productivity: Species richness, functional diversity, species identity and intraspecific competition. Functional Ecology, 34, 287–298. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.13473.

 

[10] Thuiller W, Gravel D, Ficetola GF, Lavergne S, Münkemüller T, Pollock LJ, Zimmermann NE & Mazel F (2020) Productivity begets less phylogenetic diversity but higher uniqueness than expected. Journal of Biogeography, 47, 44–58. doi: 10.1111/jbi.13630.

 

[09] Denelle P, Violle C & Munoz F (2019) Distinguishing the signatures of local environmental filtering and regional trait range limits in the study of trait–environment relationships. Oikos, 128, 960–971. doi: 10.1111/oik.05851.

 

[08] Enquist BJ, Feng X, Boyle B, Maitner BS, Newman EA, Jorgensen PM, Roehrdanz PR, Thiers BM, Burger JR, Corlett RT, Couvreur TLP, Dauby G, Donoghue JC, Foden W, Lovett JC, Marquet PA, Merow C, Midgley G, Morueta-Holme N, Neves DM, Oliveira-Filho AT, Kraft NJB, Park DS, Peet RK, Pillet M, Serra-Diaz JM, Sandel B, Schildhauer MP, Símová I, Violle C, Wieringa JJ, Wiser SK, Hannah L, Svenning J-C & McGill BJ (2019) The commonness of rarity: Global and future distribution of rarity across land plants. Science Advances, 5, eaaz0414. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz0414.

 

[07] McLean M, Auber A, Graham NAJ, Houk P, Villéger S, Violle C, Thuiller W, Wilson SK & Mouillot D (2019) Trait structure and redundancy determine sensitivity to disturbance in marine fish communities. Global Change Biology, 25, 3424–3437. doi: 10.1111/gcb.14662.

 

[06] Echeverría-Londoño S, Enquist BJ, Neves DM, Violle C, Boyle B, Kraft NJB, Maitner BS, McGill BJ, Peet RK, Sandel B, Smith SA, Svenning J-C, Wiser SK & Kerkhoff AJ (2018) Plant functional diversity and the biogeography of biomes in North and South America. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 219. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2018.00219.

 

[05] Grenié M, Mouillot D, Villéger S, Denelle P, Tucker CM, Munoz F & Violle C (2018) Functional rarity of coral reef fishes at the global scale: Hotspots and challenges for conservation. Biological Conservation, 226, 288–299. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.08.011.

 

[04] Blonder B, Morrow CB, Maitner BS, Harris DJ, Lamanna C, Violle C, Enquist BJ & Kerkhoff AJ (2017) New approaches for delineating n-dimensional hypervolumes. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 305–319. doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.12865.

 

[03] Grenié M, Denelle P, Tucker CM, Munoz F & Violle C (2017) funrar: An R package to characterize functional rarity. Diversity and Distributions, 23, 1365–1371. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12629.

 

[02] Violle C, Thuiller W, Mouquet N, Munoz F, Kraft NJB, Cadotte MW, Livingstone SW, Grenié M & Mouillot D (2017) A common toolbox to understand, monitor or manage rarity? A response to Carmona et al. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 32, 891–893. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.10.001.

 

[01] Violle C, Thuiller W, Mouquet N, Munoz F, Kraft NJB, Cadotte MW, Livingstone SW & Mouillot D (2017) Functional rarity: The ecology of outliers. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 32, 356–367. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2017.02.002.

 

FREE in the media

Sala E, Mayorga J, Bradley D, Cabral RB, Atwood TB, Auber A, Cheung W, Costello C, Ferretti F, Friedlander AM, Gaines SD, Garilao C, Goodell W, Halpern BS, Hinson A, Kaschner K, Kesner-Reyes K, Leprieur F, McGowan J, Morgan LE, Mouillot D, Palacios-Abrantes J, Possingham HP, Rechberger KD, Worm B & Lubchenco J (2021) Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate. Nature, accepted. doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03371-z.

 

Murgier J, McLean M, Maire A, Mouillot D, Loiseau N, Munoz F, Violle C & Auber A (2021) Rebound in functional distinctiveness following warming and reduced fishing in the North Sea. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences288, 20201600. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2020.1600.

 

 

Loiseau, N., Mouquet, N., Casajus, N. et al. Global distribution and conservation status of ecologically rare mammal and bird species. Nat Commun 11, 5071 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18779-w

 

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