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Project ended in 2022, after-project upcoming


Foraminifera response to Climatic Stress: evaluating biodiversity changes of calcifying zooplankton in response to multiple stressors 


Anthropogenic CO2 emissions lead to oceanic warming, and a decrease in surface water pH. Such ocean acidification (OA) is known to affect calcifying plankton groups, a key component of the carbonate pump. Fossilized shells of planktonic foraminifera comprise a major carbonate flux to the deep sea, which makes understanding their dynamics vitally important to decipher in a rapidly changing global climate. Historical changes in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages have not yet been synthesized globally, despite numerous individual collection efforts. 




The FORCIS project is filling this critical gap with a global synthesis with modern digital tools of data management and analysis. Evidently, these organisms are responding to environment change. FORCIS assesses census counts and hydrographic data since the early 1950’s to yield insights into key biodiversity metrics over the past decades, and thus also improve eco-physiological and population dynamics models.


The ultimate FORCIS goal is to understand the importance of the main stressors such as temperature and OA that govern species distribution and calcification processes, with focus on present and near-future ocean impacts. 


More information about FORCIS.



FORCIS project members in Montpellier in November 2021


Principal investigator:


Thibault de GARIDEL-THORON – CEREGE, CNRS (France)





Grégory BEAUGRAND – Wimereux (France); Gert-Jan BRUMMER – NIOZ (Netherlands); Xavier GIRAUD – CEREGE, CNRS (France); Mattia GRECO – MARUM (Germany); Maria GRIGORIATOU – Universty of Britsol (UK); Hélène HOWA – University of Angers (France); Pincelli HULL – Yale University (USA); Lukas JONKERS – MARUM (Germany); Michal KUCERA – MARUM (Germany); Graham MORTYN – UAB (Spain); Azumi KUROYANAGI – Tohoku University (Japan); Julie MEILLAND – MARUM (Germany); Ralf SCHIEBEL – Max Planck Institute for Geochemistry (Germany).

FORCIS gathers specialists in marine zooplankton ecology, geostatistics, modelling and evolutionary biology.

The project:

FORCIS was selected from the 2018 call for proposals. The selection process was carried out by an independent Scientific Committee.


[03] Smart SM, Schiebel R, Jochum KP, Chaabane S, Jentzen A, Repschläger J, Stoll B, Weis U & Haug GH (2024) Sightings of the Rare Globorotalia Cavernula in the Subantarctic South of Africa: Biogeochemical and Ecological Insights. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 54, 81-94. DOI: 10.61551/gsjfr.54.2.81.


[02] Chaabane S, De Garidel-Thoron T, Giraud X, Schiebel R, Beaugrand G, Brummer G-J, Casajus N, Greco M, Grigoratou M, Howa H, Jonkers L, Kucera M, Kuroyanagi A, Meilland J, Monteiro F, Mortyn G, Almogi-Labin A, Asahi H, Avnaim-Katav S, Bassinot F, Davis CV, Field DB, Hernández-Almeida I, Herut B, Hosie G, Howard W, Jentzen A, Johns DG, Keigwin L, Kitchener J, Kohfeld KE, Lessa DVO, Manno C, Marchant M, Ofstad S, Ortiz JD, Post A, Rigual-Hernandez A, Rillo MC, Robinson K, Sagawa T, Sierro F, Takahashi KT, Torfstein A, Venancio I, Yamasaki M & Ziveri P (2023) The FORCIS database: A global census of planktonic Foraminifera from ocean waters. Scientific Data, 10, 354. DOI: 10.1038/s41597-023-02264-2.


[01] de Garidel-Thoron T, Chaabane S, Giraud X, Meilland J, Jonkers L, Kucera M, Brummer G-JA, Grigoratou M, Monteiro FM, Greco M, Mortyn PG, Kuroyanagi A, Howa H, Beaugrand G & Schiebel R (2022) The foraminiferal response to climate stressors project: Tracking the community response of planktonic foraminifera to historical climate change. Frontiers in Marine Science, 9, 827962. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2022.827962.